I have been tidying up my computer and found the posters I made in 2005 celebrating FOGGS 21st birthday, and ones made in 2009 all displayed at the HG wildflower show. I’ll put some here and more next issue.
The 2009 posters were on the history of the National Park and started with:
THE PERIOD ENDING WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF A MULTIPLE USE POLICY BY THE FORESTS COMMISION IN 1938. (Three pages. Here are just a few entries)
For thousands of years Indigenous Australians occupy the Gariwerd area. They gathered food, farmed eels, hunted, celebrated and dreamed here in the mountains and the surrounding plains. Their culture, despite damage by white settlement, still is alive today.
1836: The first European,Major Mitchell, sights, climbs and names the Grampians. He collects 150 plant specimens, of which 40 were new to science, including our Thryptomene calycina.
1853: Ferdinand von Mueller explores the Grampians. Foxes are released in Victoria for hunting and spread rapidly.
1866: Red and sambar deer are released in western Victoria.
1868: Publication of Thomas’s Guide for Excursionists from Melbourne, the first tourist guide
1870: Rabbits reach plague proportions.
1938: Letter to the Argus newspaper calling for the Grampians to be declared a National Park.Forests Commission of Victoria developed its ‘Multiple Use Policy’ for the Grampians.
And just look at a couple of documents from 1939 times:
Aren’t we lucky that the bell miners didn’t survive/? And that the lyrebird request was turned down?
And here is a more recent history piece from FOGG newsletter spring 2013.
HISTORIC ORCHID PLANTING
It was a delight to see an article in the Stawell Times news of July 12, recognising the work of three octogenarian members of the Stawell Field Naturalists (and FOGG members). They were taking part in a history making project, the reintroduction of the threatened Brilliant Sun-orchid (Thelymitra mackibbinii), of which only 30 exist in the world, to an area near Stawell where there are just a few left.
It’s a project of the Wimmera Catchment Management Authority, led by Dr. Noushka Reiter through the Horsham laboratory. After research into propagation and the mycorrhizal associations necessary (ie fungi in the soil), plus good rains in 2009-2011, some of the plants flowered. Then they were able to be hand pollinated and now new plants have been put back into the forest.
There was a lovely photo of Lesley, Thelma and Win rejoicing after so many years of monitoring these rare plants.
The AGE had a long and chatty article on a fascinating newly discovered art site. It is far too long to copy here, but I do recommend that you read it on line – The Age
Or you can contact me (Margo) and I can send it to you. It is the need to protect valuable sites like this one that makes it so important to educate rock climbers, and where necessary ban some sites.
‘Now the legendary bunyip has been found – or ancient rock drawings of it at least – in a shallow cave atop a cliff in the Mt Difficult Range. Four bunyips, to be precise, lurking in a sandstone shelter on an outcrop that commands sweeping views of the plains of north-western Victoria.
It was a find that would shine new light on an age-old story – that of a cosmic struggle between creator spirit and his monstrous enemy – purport to explain why mother- and son-in-laws should never mix and forever change the way you see a double rainbow.
The rock art was found in the Mt Difficult Range and tells a story which links the cave to two other sites which can be seen from the clifftop.
It was in May 27, 2016 that park ranger Kyle Hewitt – marking a new track that will form part of the Grampians Peaks Trail – entered the sandstone shelter and brought its bunyips back from oblivion.
Since then the rediscovery has been kept secret. Only a handful of traditional owners, park rangers and archaeologists have been allowed to enter the cave.
Even now, its exact location cannot be revealed.
The cave was the latest and most significant of about 40 rock-art sites to be rediscovered in the last seven years in the Grampians – or Gariwerd as they are called by the people whose ancestors drew those bunyip.
That has taken the tally of rock-art sites in Gariwerd to about 140 – or 90 per cent of all the known such sites in Victoria.
Jake Goodes began his life as a park ranger in Gariwerd hunting goats. Now, 15 years later, he hunts rock art. As Parks Victoria’s Aboriginal Heritage co-ordinator for western Victoria and, at 36, an archaeologist in training, Mr Goodes was among the group that first recorded the bunyip cave.
Goats are one of the primary threats to these ochre bunyips, as they are to all Gariwerd’s rock art. Like people, goats are drawn to these shelters, and like to scratch their coarse and oily hides against the sandstone.
On the hike to the bunyip cave, Mr Goodes points out signs that indicate the bunyips survived another close encounter. It’s there in the blackened stringybark trunks, the thick regrowth of leaves, the fields of white everlasting daisies.
“Fire has the potential to destroy the whole site,” he says.
“It heats the air within the rock and then it pops the rock like popcorn.”
“But people are the ones who do the most damage to any site,” Mr Goodes says. “Which is unfortunate. The rock art of the Grampians is rich in symbols, some of which are found nowhere else and much of which hasmeanings yet to be relearned.”
The article goes on to tell a story about Bunjil, who is depicted in Bunjil’s cave not far from Stawell. Mr Goodes calls this tale a lore story. Its survival too, is a small miracle. It came to him by way of research done by historian Ian Clarke, who dug up a newspaper article published in 1925 by a reverend, who was told the story by an Aboriginal source he refers to only as “a woman from the Wimmera”.
(Remember that Ian Clarke told us about this in a talk last year.)
‘The towneys watched back’ is a project by artist Fernando do Campo, who has been researching the histories of house sparrow introductions across the USA, Argentina and Australia. Through archival research, colonial language, and site-specific artistic interventions across Ararat, Fernando do Campo explores this local narrative and the house sparrow as a potent symbol of colonisation.
This year marks the 150th anniversary of the ceremonial release of house sparrows from a balcony at the former Bull and Mouth Hotel, Barkly Street, Ararat. As the Advertiser explained in 1867: ‘On Tuesday morning last a cage of English sparrows arrived in Ararat by coach…’ The local community of Ararat rejoiced their release … for hours afterwards wherever one or two could be seen knots of persons gathered to watch their movements…’
In April 2007 the book covering the devastating fires of January 2006, and also the way the vegetation responded , was launched at Willaura. FOGG were the instigators of the project, then many others came on board to support it. As well as the book, there were art and music workshops and performances in different places around the Grampians, culminating a festival day in Halls Gap.
To me, one of the highlights was the set of songs which emerged from the workshops with Fay White. Too long to put here, but here are excerpts from two of them. (I will ask Frank to put the complete ones up on our website.)
The fire came through with roar and noise, awesome power and might.
Somehow we found the strength to stay, that long and anxious night.
At dawn the sound of cracking rocks, the fall of dying trees.
We looked and saw the forest, and the farms brought to their knees.
Twisted iron, charred remains, scorched and blackened ground,
Fenceless paddocks, stricken stock, some dead in swollen mounds.
Proud cliffs with trees like charcoal sticks, naked rocks laid bare,
And wisps of smoke from smouldering stumps, drifting in the air.
Fallen to ashes. fallen to ashes, All that beauty gone, fallen to ashes.
So summer passed and autumn came with days of mist and frost
And welcome rain began to fall, we grieved for what was lost
And the land began to lift its head to meet the falling rain
And we began to find the strength and will to start again
Out of the ashes . . . something coming through, out of the ashes
It’s hard painstaking dirty work, tedious and slow
Sometimes you think its gone for good, perhaps you too should go
But the grass-tree’s sprouting cheerful spikes as if to disagree
And Lo! A new defiant dress on every fire-scorched tree
Out of the ashes . . . something coming through, out of the ashes
These mountains stand shoulder to shoulder
Massive uplift held in stone
Lift your heart and look and listen.
Here is a wonderland.
Sing – the mornings, crisp and fair,
early bird-songs slice the air
Round the cliffs the echoes ring,
every wild thing wakes and sings
Sunrise turns rocks to rose,
every eastern rock-face glows.
Live, alive, a heartbeat heard – alive in Grampians Gariwerd
Sing – the days of scented peace,
perfume nectar sweet release
Wildflower courting insect wing,
snowy thryptomene has its fling
Cascades laughing tumble down,
flowing water for lowland towns
Live, alive, a heartbeat heard –alive in Grampians Gariwerd
Flick and flutter in the twilight haze,
gentle wallabies come to graze
Feeding, foraging, feathers and fur,
in leaf litter the lizards stir
Flocks of cockatoos rise and fall,
wok-a-wok wattle-birds cackle and call
Insect, animal, reptile, bird – alive in Grampians Gariwerd
Sing the horizon blue on blue,
rugged skyline breathless view
Noble slope, the sweeping range
O how swift the mood can change
Twist and crack in gale force winds,
forest buckles as the storm drives in
Wild and wilful heartbeat stirred – pulse of the Grampians Gariwerd
I received a most interesting article from one of the long term members of Stawell Field Naturalists.
“Black Friday”, the 13th January 1939, saw the Grampians burnt from the northern end to the southern end. Although there was utter devastation, one bright side as far as my family was concerned was that now the Wannon river at Jimmy’s creek was now accessible from the Dunkeld Rd without having to bash through the thick undergrowth of bracken fern, titree etc.
In those days the Grampians were far different from today. Most people didn’t have a car and so very few of the visitors to the Grampians went further south than Myrtlebank on Dairy Creek. About the only people to frequent the area south of Myrtlebank were the forest workers/ sawmillers and those who had grazing rights. It was virtually an isolated area of peace and beauty.
Late summer 1939 Dad decided to take the family to Jimmy’s creek for a weekend fishing. This was a real treat for us as we had never had the luxury of Holidays. Mum and dad were too busy working hard to feed and clothe the family. You can imagine our excitement to be going camping for a weekend. No luxuries, not even a tent. We slept under the stars – Beautiful! I can remember making a hammock by opening up the sides of a wheat bag, plaiting ropes to each end to tie it to trees. Then at Jimmy’s creek finding two trees close enough together to tie the hammock to! Sometimes a rope would break or come undone and one would end up on the ground. As far as I can remember our camping equipment was very basic – a blanket, billy, shovel, matches, dish, frying pan and dad’s Coleman lantern (its strong light lit up a vast area). No tents, stretchers, swags, sleeping bags or torches. We had never even heard of torches then -they didn’t come on the scene until well after world war 2. No luxuries such as showers and toilets like at the present day Jimmy’s ck camping ground. There was cold running water to wash in – the river.
Thursday after school I helped dad dig and collect worms for bait – dad digging and me collecting. Friday night when we arrived home from school the gear was loaded onto our A model Ford ute and off we went. I can recall stopping once on the way down to walk in from the road to see a burntout sawmill (Sandersons, I think). About all that remained was the steam boiler. When we crossed Jimmy’s creek we drove in off the coast road through the trees and there were no tracks except the ones we were making. A camp was selected with Jimmy’s ck on the north and the Wannon creek on the west. Hammocks were attached to trees, firewood collected and then off fishing. Our rods were either a length of bamboo or a stick of titree just long enough to drop the hook and sinker under a cork float into the little stream. It didn’t take long to catch enough black fish for our tea. The largest of the fish were about 20 cm long. The fish were gutted, rolled in flour and into the frying pan. When they were cooked the flesh came off the backbone, the other bones were so small and fine they were just eaten,-there was no way they would stick in your throat. The fish were accompanied by spuds baked in the ashes – no alfoil wrapping – a bit of ash or charcoal never hurt anyone.
I can remember my first night under the stars. There were many strange sounds and things that “went bump in the night”. It was the sounds of the roos and other animals as they moved around – not a big bad bogeyman!
All day Saturday and Sunday morning were spent up and down the river fishing. We mainly fished in the Wannon. Apart from the black fish there were the menacing little “mountain trout” which used to sneakily suck the worms off the hook without you knowing. These were a very small fish about 6cm long fully grown. Then there were “prickly backs”. These were like a yabby, up to about 15cm or so, but “prickly” like a lobster. We learnt by watching the float you could tell what was taking the bait. If it was a mountain trout there was a very slight movement of the float. Prickly backs tended to drag the bait and float away, whilst black fish pulled the float down. If it was a mountain trout or a If it was a mountain trout or prickly back at your bait you moved to another spot. Once Mum thought a prickly back would be a change from black fish for her tea so she cooked one but alas there was practically no flesh inside the shell – so no more prickly backs.
It was real fun stumbling along the river bank and over fallen logs particularly after dark when following Dad and being blinded by his Coleman. I doubt if Mum thought it was so much fun – firstly she didn’t like fishing (it was OK eating them) and secondly she had to wash our clothes when we got home. Our clothes were always fairly black after a weekend on burnt ground and pushing through burnt ti tree etc. Sadly our weekends at Jimmy’s Creek came to an end when petrol was rationed in World War II.
I often wonder whether there are still black fish, mountain trout and prickly backs at Jimmy’s Creek. Also wouldn’t it be nice to enjoy those quiet, peaceful and relaxed times again in the Grampians away from the hustle, bustle, cars and hordes of people in a hurry who now over run the area and dash around as if there was no tomorrow without time to “smell the roses”?
FOGG member Win Pietsch has sent us some extracts from the minutes of the Stawell Field Naturalist Club, of which she, Thelma and Ian were core members.
July ’57: Over 300 koalas liberated in Halls Gap area
Feb ’58: Aboriginal caves discovered in the Billywing, Glenisla. A visit to them in March.
July ’60: Ian McCann discovered snow daisies Brachyscame nivalis, growing at the southern end of Major Mitchell Plateau, confirmed as the most westerly occurrence of this plant in Australia.
Aug ’63: Mr Wakefield camped in the Grampians and came to check the contents of an owl pellet deposit found in the Victoria range. He sieved through the contents and found bone fragments of up to 400 animals, including 21 native species.
Feb’ 77: A greater long eared bat found for the first time in the Asses Ears area. Bat trapping in the Victoria Valley captured 5 species but no bat caves found in the Grampians as yet.
Feb’78: Mr Tucker reported seeing Satin Flycatchers in the Grampians.
May ’81: Pomonal nursery’s “nuisance” proved to be a rare Broad-Toothed Rat. First report for the area.
Apr ’82: A short nosed bandicoot seen near Clematis falls.
June ’92: A Pidula species of Birds nest fungus at Pines camping ground area confirmed to be Pidua nivea tomentara.
Nov ’92: The beehive at Beehive Falls known to have been active for at least 80 years – Ian McCann.
May ’93: Strombilamyes fungus, related to the American “Old man of the Woods” found on the west of Bolte Hwy between halls Gap and Pines Camping Ground.
April ’95: A Peripatus found in litter near Dairy Creek.
June ’95: A fungus Grifola species, is found in Halls Gap.
July ’76: A rock wallaby reported in the Red Rock area of Victoria Range.
Feb ’96: Ian McCann reported that a fungus he had found on a banksia cone on Mt William had been officially named Banksiamyces maccanii. B. maccannii, first described in 1984, was found on dead Banksia saxicola cones. The specific epithet was chosen to honour Ian McCann, for his “discovery of the type collection and … his years of ecological, educational and conservation work in the Victorian Grampians.” (The fungus is distinguished from the other Banksiamyces species by its larger asci, larger spores, and tapering paraphyses tips. Further, the type collection was found fruiting in December and January, compared to winter and autumn for other Banksiamyces.)
June “94: Fungus, Cordyceps hawksii found near Forest Lodge in victoria valley.
Sep ’90: Grampians Sheoke (Allocasuarina grampiana) found on Boronia Peak.
By J. W. AUDAS, F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Assistant, National Herbarium, Melbourne. (Read before the Field Naturalist’s Club of Victoria, 15th Jan., 1919.)
[In our March edition we left the botanising group on the top of Mt Rosea on the first day of their two day trip in early November.]
As the country began to dip towards the Victoria Valley a fine patch of Melaleuca squamea in full bloom was met with, and in the gullies below Bauera sessiliflora was a magnificent sight. Grevillea rosmarinifolia, with its pretty rose-coloured blooms, and Trymalium Daltonii were also growing in the gullies ; the latter is a very early blooming shrub, and is at its best in July. The four Brachylomas native to Victoria were also found growing in this locality ; they were B. ericoides, B. daphnoides, B. ciliatum, and B. depressum. Following the creek which flows towards the Victoria Valley, we passed large patches of Pultenea Benthami, also P. rosea, both of which are peculiar to the Grampians. Some of the latter shrubs were especially fine here, growing to the height of fully eight feet, which is most unusual, as this plant is usually low-growing. Still keeping to the creek, we passed a peculiar rock known as ” The Monument,” adjacent to which were some fine patches of Lhotzkya genetylloides, Sprengelia incarnata, Thryptomene Mitchelliana, Melaleuca decussata, Calytrix Sullivani, Correa speciosa, and Epacris impressa ; the latter was a magnificent sight, in colours light and dark pink, and I was surprised to find it in profuse bloom at so late a period of the season. Leaving ” The Monument ” in the rear, the creek increased in size and volume of water, owing to the many tributaries joining it. On the banks was seen Epacris paludosa, with its beautiful
heads of wax-like flowers, while further down a large patch, some acres in extent, of Calectasia cyanea, or what is locally known as “Satin-flower,” presented an unusually pretty scene. Its blue flowers are delightfully glossy, and make beautiful bouquets, which last for months. Another attractive feature here was the abundance and variety of Helichrysums, the well-known everlasting daisies ; the three best noted were H. baxteri, H. bracteatum, and H. Blandowskianum, the latter being one of the most attractive everlastings. Its clusters of flower-heads are borne on stalks of almost equal whiteness, which make it valued for wedding bouquets and wreaths. Near at hand a fine waterfall was met with, fully a hundred feet in height. Mr. D’Alton was of opinion that this waterfall was not previously known, so we bestowed on it the name of Calectasia Fall, in honour of the beautiful plant growing near by. Further afield some very large patches of Boronia pilosa in full bloom was passed through, and the strong perfume emitted from this plant, especially when trodden upon, was very noticeable. For the next few miles we passed through very rough, rugged country, which made travelling extremely arduous, and on the way we noticed that the creek we had been following, and which we named Rosea Creek, on account of the large quantities of the beautiful Pultenea rosea growing near its source, had been much flooded at some previous time, as in some places the soil had been scoured out completely, while large heaps of debris were accumulated along its course. As dusk was drawing near, we decided to camp for the night, and a sheltered spot was chosen. Soon a large fire was blazing, and the billy boiled, and we were very tired and much in need of our evening meal. After partaking of same we proceeded to make things comfortable for the night by strewing ferns and eucalypt branches on the ground, over which we spread our blankets. It was necessary to keep a large fire going all the time, as the night was extremely cold.
[Next issue will continue the report, with their second full day among the wildflowers. As noted last time the spelling of some plant names is erratic, due to the difficulty the OCR programme had with Latin words. And some names of course have changed in the last 90 years.]
The 100 Year celebration of Zumsteins will be held on Sunday 22 September 2013 at Zumsteins Picnic Ground in the Grampians National Park. The day will be also a celebration for the restoration works that has happened since the 2011 flood and storm event.
A small group have come together from the local community, the Horsham Historical Society, Wartook Tourism Association and Parks Victoria to plan for this special day. They would like to invite anybody who has enjoyed or has a strong association to the area, to come and celebrate this much-loved place created over one hundred years ago by Walter Zumstein. The celebrations begin at 10.30am with a number of speakers and displays bringing to life the many memories of the area, and of Walter Zumstein and his family. There will also be many activities such as a community bike ride from Rosebrook, a community picnic and children’s games. Restoration works from the 2011 storm and flood event at Zumsteins will be completed for this event. Visitors will see plenty of evidence of the site’s recovery both in the picnic area and in the surrounding environment.
Zumsteins memories, stories or photos can be emailed to Rod Jenkinson or call into the Historical Society rooms at 33 Pynsent Street on Tuesdays or Wednesdays between 1.30 and 4.30pm or phone Ron on 53822573 evenings.
Official wildlife database records are poor when attempting to understand the historic habitat ranges of many wildlife species. This creates difficulties when investigating the potential for large-scale fauna restoration opportunities across landscapes such as the Grampians. Common questions arise; What species used to occur in the landscape? How abundant were they? What was there habitat preference? Why did they go extinct?
My search started when comparing the data of previous small mammal captures by Seebeck1 in the 1970’s, or Cockburn2 in the 1980’s with recent small mammal trapping in the Grampians3. It is clear that species such as Long Nosed Potoroo, Southern Brown Bandicoot and Smokey Mouse have declined. This is in addition to the species already locally extinct such as White Footed Rabbit Rat, Southern Bettong, Western Barred Bandicoot and New Holland Mouse found by Wakefield4 in the 1960’s in Grampians cave deposits and the loss of poorly documented species such as Quoll5,6 and Dingo7.
However, nothing will replace local knowledge that can only be achieved through time spent working, living, exploring, studying and listening to a landscape. In Eric Barber, the Grampians has a custodian of local knowledge only earned through a long family connection with stories passed from his father, uncle and grandfather combined with a library of references only collected through a passionate career in natural history.
Eric’s oral history and advice has pointed me in the right direction to help paint the picture on Quoll in the Grampians landscape.
Eric accounts that many species that are rare or extinct today were common back in the 1800’s and 1900’s and were not noteworthy to write or document about being considered abundant and vermin. This makes establishing historic habitat ranges difficult when catastrophic disease possibly contributed to exterminating quolls on the mainland between 1901-19038,9. To this point, the presence of both species of Quoll in the Grampians (Eastern and Tiger) has provided many years of conjecture to agree if the species were actually present or not as official documentation is poor.
Eric explains that Quoll were once widespread. Supporting this valuable local oral history is research about to be published by David Peacock and Ian Abbot that has unearthed over 40,000 quoll records hidden in grey literature and family diaries from across Australia. This work includes local Grampians accounts such as; 1872 Mr Macpherson of Vermont noted that his father killed a large Tiger Quoll at the head of the Glenelg River (in the now Grampians National Park); 1875 – a Tiger Quoll was killed at Billgana in the Ararat district in the act of ‘devouring a good sized chicken’; 1882 – The Ararat Advertiser account for Eastern Quolls being trapped and killed during the lambing season in the Mount William district; 1885 – Eastern Quolls were also ‘very abundant’ in western Victoria with an author touring the region frequently seeing their ‘white-spotted carcasses lying about stations where they had been killed in traps’; 1898 – a toddler was scratched on the leg by an Eastern Quoll whilst in the Grampians (all accounts from Peacock and Abbot, unpublished data).
The evidence is now clear for the Grampians and surrounding area. A Tiger Quoll skull was recently found in a cave in the Victoria Range in March 2012. Eric provided me with the memoirs of Mrs M. Bodey5 from circa 1900 who writes from Walmer along the Wimmera River of native cats in their hundreds, unearthing and eating corpses in graves and attacking people in beds!
Over the past few hundred years land clearing has isolated the Grampians, fire regimes have been altered and the introduction of fox and cat combined with sport hunting of species such as Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby10,11 have changed the presence of native mammals we now have. However, imagine if we could play a role in large-scale restoration of our unique wildlife similar to ambitious attempts and plans in the UK or the USA?
I continue to research the missing wildlife the Grampians and am particularly interested in Dingo. Any information, family diaries or oral history accounts of Dingo (or Quoll) would be gratefully received. Please contact if you would like to provide any information.
Thank you to Eric and Evie Barber for kindly passing on information, obscure references and pointing me in the right direction. Thank you to David Peacock and Ian Abbot for use of Grampians quoll records prior to formal publication of their quoll database.
1 Seebeck, J.H. (1976). Mammals in the Pomonal area, Grampians. Victorian Naturalist 93. 138-147.
2 Cockburn, A. (1981). Population regulation and dispersion of the smoky mouse, Pseudomys fumeus II. Spring decline, breeding success and habitat heterogeneity. Australian Journal of Ecology6, 255-266.
3 De Bondi, N., White, J.G., Stevens, M., and Cooke, R. (2010). A comparison of the effectiveness of camera trapping and live trapping for sampling terrestrial small-mammal communities. Wildlife Research37, 456-465.
4 Wakefield, N. A. (1963). Mammal remains from the Grampians, Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 80, 130-133.
5 Bodey, M. (c.1900). ‘The early Wimmera’. Personal memoir. Personal communication.
6 Wakefield, N.A. (1974). Mammals of Western Victoria. In Douglas and O’Brien (Eds.), The Natural History of Western Victoria, pp. 35-51.
7 Carter, S. (1911). ‘Reminiscences of the early days of the Wimmera’. (Norman Brothers Printers: Melbourne.)
8 McQueen R. 1960. Native Cats on Wilson’s Promontory. Victorian Naturalist, 77, pp 206-207.
9 Paddle, R. 2002. The Last Tasmanian Tiger: The History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Published in Australia by Cambridge University Press
10 Fountain, P., and Ward, T. (1907). ‘Rambles of an Australian naturalist’. (John Murray, London.)
11 Lobert, B. (1988). The Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) in the Grampians National Park and Black Range, Victoria. Part 1 – Survey. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report Series No. 64. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Heidelberg, Victoria.